The 13th International Conference – Functional and Medical Foods
Kitasato Research Center for Environmental Science, Japan
Pharmaceutical Dept. of Iwaki Meisei University, Japan
Dept. of Food Science, Rutgers University, USA
WellGen, Inc., USA
Taiwan University, Taiwan
Functional Foods in Health and Disease (USA)
Food Science & Human Wellness (2012, 1, pages 65-73; China )
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research (2013, 57, pages 551-555; Germany)
Food & Function (2013, accepted England)
Thirty-two years ago a Formulated Citrus Peel Extract (Formulated CPE) made from the peels of six citrus fruits and the peel extract of each citrus fruit were sent to the Huntingdon Research Center in England for Safety Evaluation--toxicological studies, such as carcinogenesis, sensitization, acute & sub-chronic toxicity.
For the past 20 years as the most effective major compound to possess various pharmacological activities, a preliminary chemical analysis revealed the abundant existence of flavonoids (PMF, PHF) including naringin, hesperidin, etc., which are found exclusively in the peels of Citrus genus, in Formulated CPE. The preliminary investigation showed that Formulated CPE dose dependently decreased the release of TNF-¿ and nitric oxide induced by LPS in macrophage RAW264.7 cells, suppressed the expression of iNOS and nuclear translocation of NFÈB. In TPA-induced mouse skin inflammation model, Formulated CPE significantly inhibited inflammation by decreasing inflammatory parameters such as iNOS, COX-2 and ODC. Furthermore, Formulated CPE inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation and reduced tumor incidence, tumor weight, and tumor multiplicity of papillomafs at 20 weeks. Hydroxyl radicals (DMPO/OH adduct) were effectively scavenged by Formulated CPE in vitro.
Findings suggest that Formulated CPE suppressed the inflammation in vitro and in vivo, and may exert chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress and TPA-mediated promotion of DMBA-induced skin cancer in mouse model. Formulated CPE is a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.